Understanding Reserve Capacity: What It Is and Why It Matters

In the power system of every country A certain level of backup power is required. To be a backup power generation in the event that the operating power plant has an accident. unable to supply power or stop maintenance or there are other restrictions on the generation or transmission of electricity. 

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Because we will need electricity. that can meet the needs of use every time Including during periods of peak demand for electricity as well Therefore, the standby power capacity will use the maximum demand as the basis for the calculation. in determining the level of backup power generation If it is set too high, it will be a burden on the investment of the electricity utilities. This will result in unnecessarily higher electricity bills. But if set too low, it can cause power outages. If the reserves are insufficient The chances of a power outage will be greater. which will cause damage to electricity users According to a study conducted by the Energy Research Institute of Chulalongkorn University, it was found that power outages cost about 60 baht per unit, while the cost of electricity is about 250 baht. By considering the uncertainty of building a new power plant. and demand for electricity in the future as well Thailand’s backup power generation capacity, in addition to including power plants that are under maintenance Including power plants that have limitations in various fields, including

1) Limitations on the amount of water in the dams (e.g. hydropower plants in dams).

2) Power plants with environmental limitations (e.g. Mae Moh Power Plant)

3) Relatively old power plants with low efficiency (e.g. Bang Pakong Power Plant, South Bangkok

4) Gas turbine power plants (e.g. Nong Chok Power Plant, capacity of 300 megawatts) that use diesel fuel and generate electricity. During short periods of peak demand

If these power plants are used to generate electricity, there will be environmental problems or high costs as well Therefore, the appropriate backup power capacity will depend on the condition of the power plant. and limitations of the power plant as well If we have a lot of old power plants that are used and broken often. or low efficiency, resulting in high fuel costs, we may have to have a high reserve capacity But if there are only new power plants of good quality and high efficiency The reserves may not be too high. Normally, standby power capacity should be 15% more than the peak demand (can be more if there is a difference). for reasons already mentioned)

Power Generation

Previously, there was only one electricity producer in Thailand, namely “Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT)” until 1989, the government has a policy to encourage the private sector to participate in the production of electricity in the form of independent power producers (IPP) and producers. Small power producers: SPPs

An independent power producer is a large private power producer Selling electricity to EGAT where EGAT sends the power plants and distributes electricity to the system. Most electricity uses natural gas as fuel, long-term power purchase agreements, mostly 25 years.

Small Power Producer It is a power generation project using a combined heat and electricity generation system or electricity generation using renewable energy. Selling electricity to EGAT not exceeding 90 megawatts can sell directly to consumers in the vicinity.

Proportion of main fuels in electricity generation of ASEAN countries

The proportion of using coal for power generation will increase from 32 percent to 50 percent due to economic reasons. The cost of coal is cheaper than natural gas. Extensive reserves by selecting high-efficiency technologies to address the issue of CO2 emission reduction. 35% of coal-fired power plants will use this technology. Supercritical and 21 percent are Ultra-supercritical. while the use of natural gas will decrease from 44 percent to 26 percent, and the share of renewable energy will increase to 22 percent from accelerating the production of renewable energy. by exploring the geothermal resources of Indonesia and the Philippines and accelerating the development of onshore wind and solar energy. For example, using solar energy by installing solar cells. and in the region is an important factor. While ASEAN will have the share of nuclear power for the first time. When the nuclear power plant in Vietnam is completed as planned

The proportion of fuel for electricity production of 7 ASEAN countries is as follows:

What fuels does ASEAN use to generate electricity?

  1. Thailand – In 2015, 69.24% of coal was used to generate electricity using natural gas, 19.72% coal, and 7.6% hydropower (domestic and international).
  2. Malaysia – In 2015, Malaysia’s coal consumption was 47.5% and natural gas was 45.5%, with Malaysia focusing on developing the most efficient technology of coal-fired power plants. Ultra-supercritical
  3. Indonesia – 13.5% coal-fired power generation, 29% natural gas. It plans to add another 42,000 megawatts of electricity capacity to about 96,000 megawatts in 2024, focusing on increasing coal capacity by half to about 20,000 megawatts. followed by 13,000 megawatts of natural gas and the rest is renewable energy production. with an emphasis on geothermal heat
  4. The Philippines – 13.5% of its electricity is generated from geothermal energy. However, fossil fuels and natural gas24 projected increases in electricity demand have prompted the Philippines to build more power plants in the country. another 16,550 megawatts by 2030, with more than half of them being fossil-fueled base load plants.
  5. Myanmar – 67% of electricity is generated by hydropower, 30% natural gas, 3% coal. There is a shortage of electricity, especially in the summer. In the dry season when the amount of water is insufficient As a result, the power supply has to be stopped in some areas alternately. The 15-year power plan that Myanmar is currently in use. therefore aiming to increase production capacity to 29,000 megawatts in 2031 by 41 additional power plants were abandoned, of which 20 hydroelectric power plants with a total capacity of 6,270 megawatts, 12 coal-fired power plants with a total capacity of 12,780 megawatts, the remaining 1,301 megawatts of natural gas power plants, 520 megawatts of solar and 4,032 megawatts of wind power. watt
  6. Vietnam – 42% of its electricity is hydropower, 31.4% natural gas, and 19.8% coal. But by 2030, this proportion will change. Because Vietnam will reduce dependence on uncertain energy sources such as hydro power. Then it will increase the capacity of coal-fired power plants. After Vietnam’s nuclear power plants operate as planned in 2028, nuclear power will account for 5.7 percent of Vietnam’s electricity generation by 2073, while wind, solar and biomass will account for about 10 percent.
  7. Laos – Laos has always been the country that produces the most hydropower in ASEAN. Electricity in Laos is 80% hydropower and 20% coal. The first coal-fired power plant is the Hongsa Power Plant, which currently has 3 plants with a total capacity of 1,878 megawatts and is planning to build a fourth plant. go also neighboring countries

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